A hernia is a weakness in the abdominal muscle wall where an internal organ pushes through.In a hernia, the soft tissue is normally contained by an abdominal wall. If there is a weak or thin spot, the inner tube can protrude through your body. That might indicate bulging intestines or fat. In other words, when the muscular or tough containment becomes weak and a hole develops, the contents of that structure are able to herniate through the gap. For instance, the abdominal wall can develop a weakness or a hole in the muscular wall and then some of the bowel or intestine or fat within the abdomen is able to herniate through that hole, causing a visible swelling or pain. If untreated, it can be hazardous.
Open repair, laparoscopic (minimally invasive) repair, and robotic repair are the three major types of hernia surgery.
One way to repair a simple hernia is using a minimally invasive approach known as laparoscopic surgery. This is done through a laparoscope – a flexible, thin device with a light source and a camera on the end. Depending on where the hernia is, it is put through minute incisions made in the belly. This camera can then be used by surgeons to direct their surgical repair.This minimally invasive surgery involves inserting small tubes called “cannulas” through the abdominal wall. Both small and large hernias can be treated with this method.
Using stitches and artificial mesh, which strengthens the abdominal walls, the surgeon repairs the hernia. The little incisions are then stitched or sealed after being repaired. These stitches don’t need removalas they are bound to dissolve over time.
Courtesy: Southwest Surgery
Compared to open surgery, laparoscopic surgery is less invasive and results in fewer scars as opposed to a large one. As a result, recuperation time from surgery is shorter and there is less pain due to which, patients can resume normal activities sooner.
Another way of repairing a hernia which is complex is open surgery. One large incision is made directly over a hernia defect in a prosthetic mesh sown to strengthen the abdominal wall. The first step is to relieve tension by separating muscle components and then the second step is to close the gap and place mesh between muscle layers. This approach is used for both small and large hernias, especially in patients with previous hernia surgery. The open repair surgery can be carried out with local anesthesia while the patient is awake and is less expensive.
Robotic Surgery : Robotic surgery is a very complex laparoscopic surgery. There’s a computer between the physician and the patient. The surgeon controls the surgical instruments from a console while remaining seated in the operating room. It immerses them inside the body where they can see excellent three-dimensional images of the interior of the abdomen. They can see structures, vessels, and nerves that cannot be seen with the naked eye. The use of stitches to join tissue and meshes inside the abdomen is another benefit of robotic surgery.
Courtesy: Mater Private Network
At present, robotic surgery is also utilized to repair the abdominal wall in addition to treating some smaller hernias or weaker spots.Other advantages of robotic hernia surgery include the absence of a single, major incision scar and the potential for reduced postoperative pain in patients.Hence, robotic surgery has allowed physicians to offer patients a better chance of leaving the hospital faster with less pain and less blood besides quicker recovery. The patients return back to their normal activities pretty quickly.
Hernia surgery is heavily reliant on the surgeon.After a hernia operation, patients should anticipate some mild pain. Avoidance of certain pains helps to minimize pain and medications are prescribed. Patients are advised to resume all regular activities as soon as they are comfortable doing so without generating excessive pain. Most patients get back to work within a week or so. Hence, hernia surgery helps a patient live a better quality of life and prevents potentially fatal situations.
The treatment of hernias in all of its variants necessitates a stronger fusion of precise anatomical knowledge with surgical competence than any other condition of the human body that falls under the purview of surgeons. The development of methods for doing hernia repairs laparoscopically has been prompted by the growing interest in minimally invasive surgery.
Compared to open surgeries, laparoscopic surgical techniques have a number of benefits, such as shorter hospital stays, less postoperative discomfort, and shorter recovery times. There are a number of viable laparoscopic procedures available today. However, there is no information available about their cost-effectiveness or long-term recurrence rates. A large-scale switch from the preferred individualized conventional procedure to a laparoscopic technique is still too soon to recommend.
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